June 26, 2012 – Action Alert: Is Fracking Coming To New York?

Last week Governor Cuomo announced on WGDJ radio in Albany that “we don’t have a hard date, but it will be done shortly”, signaling that the state will adopt a policy on fracking soon. This statement comes days after the Governor’s office leaked a plan to the New York Times (in which Mountainkeeper was quoted) that would allow hydrofracking permits in Broome, Tioga, Chenango, Chemung and Steuben counties near the Pennsylvania border and would give local communities a say in whether or not gas wells would be drilled (Listen to Ramsay Adams interviewed on WBAI NYC Public Radio).

Our response to the Governor’s plan was swift and strong.  Mountainkeeper immediately convened a meeting of the top environmental groups in the state and together we organized a press conference and rally in Albany on June 20th.   We told the Governor that it is unacceptable to sacrifice any area of New York State to fracking.

Whether the Governor plans to drill 5 counties or 62, the danger of fracking is still the same.  In states that are being fracked, water and air are being polluted and most importantly people are getting sick.  And yet, no comprehensive scientific study has been done by the State to determine the impacts of fracking on health.  We have been calling on the state to do a Health Impact Assessment (HIA), (a broad-spectrum scientific review of both the qualitative and quantitative information related to the impacts on health of fracking), for years.  The State Assembly passed a bill to have it done last week, but the campanion bill was blocked in the State Senate, leaving it up to the Governor to order one.

As we see the issue, the question isn’t why do a HIA, the question is why would we not do a HIA when there is overwhelming evidence that fracking is dangerous to health.  The dangers are explored in Josh Fox’s new 18-minute video titled,  “The Sky is Pink”  which also highlights the parallels between the gas industry’s denials of potential health impacts and the disinformation campaign that was waged by the cigarette industry 50 years ago.  The mantra “gas wells don’t leak” is synonymous with “cigarettes don’t kill”.

The truth is that the DEC has failed to evaluate the myriad of issues that accompany gas drilling and there is no way in good conscience that the state should be finalizing a plan at this time. In addition to the failure to do a HIA, the DEC has also failed to:

  • Address the issue of upward migration of methane and the toxic byproducts of fracking through natural faults in the earth (see Hydrogeologist Tom Myer’s peer reviewed study on this topic)
  • Prepare a plan for the disposal of millions of gallons of toxic wastewater (see NRDC’s report on wastewater and Environmental Advocates analysis)
  • Update studies of greenhouse gas emissions
  • Address the radioactive pollution from drilling
  • Review the siting plans of risks of potentially explosive natural gas pipelines
  • And more….for a review of the other dangers of fracking please go to our website.

It is not too late.  Please help us keep up the pressure on the Govenor by calling and telling him that allowing drilling anywhere in New York State is unacceptable. His office can be reached at (518) 474-8390.

We also urge you to join with Mountainkeeper at the Stop The Frack Attack Rally in Washington DC on July 28thThis National Day of Action is aimed at challenging the oil and gas industry’s control over our national policies.  Now is the time for us all to unite and demand no more drilling that harms public health, water, and air.  It is time to put communities and the environment first and to demand an end to special subsidies for the industry.  Visit the StopTheFrackAttack.org website for more information.

We Need Your Financial Support.  Please donate to Catskill Mountainkeeper so that we can continue to fight on your behalf.

or send a check to: Catskill Mountainkeeper, Box 381 Youngsville, NY 12791

Copyright 2012 Catskill Mountainkeeper, P.O. Box 381, Youngsville, New York, 12791. Catskill Mountainkeeper is a non-profit 501(c)(3) grassroots advocacy organization dedicated to protecting and preserving the unique and irreplaceable Catskill Region of New York State.

New Study Predicts Frack Fluids Can Migrate to Aquifers Within Years

Major news outlets such as Bloomberg News, Business Week and Propublica are reporting on a game changing peer reviewed study commissioned by Catskill Mountainkeeper that predicts frack fluids can migrate into aquifers, directly contradicting the claims by the gas industry that these toxic chemicals will stay underground forever.

The new peer-reviewed study by hydrogeologist and researcherTom Myers, “Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers” published in the current issue of Ground Water, demonstrates that fluids from highly-pressurized gas drilling activities can migrate from deep subsurface layers of shale to shallow aquifers and surface waters, bringing along polluting gases, chemicals, and radioactivity. The study, based on computer modeling of pressure waves, rock characteristics, and fluid mobilization in natural and induced fissures, offers an explanatory mechanism for previous reports of contamination of wells by deep shale methane in and around Dimock, Pennsylvania. The study accords with detailed fracture maps produced by structural geologist Robert Jacobi, showing extensive fracturing of deep bedrock, including shale layers in the Catskills and across New York State.
Hydrofracking and other high-pressurized drilling activities seek to exploit natural and induced fractures in order to release methane gas, but migration of contaminated gas and fluids through rock fissures cannot be managed or controlled, making slow contamination of aquifers and water resources – over time frames as short as one year – extremely likely in areas of intensive drilling activity. This threat from deep level contamination therefore points to risks inherent in high pressure drilling activities and adds a level of threat to human and animal health beyond that of poorly drilled wells and dissolving cement sheaths and casings, already well-accepted as mechanisms by which drilling activities can ruin water sources.

Read the Propublica Story Here

Read the Bloomberg/Business Week Story Here

Our Fight Against Fracking

Part of our worldwide effort to halt climate change and why we need to ban fracking and adopt a renewable energy policy

When you are fighting against fracking you are part of a larger global effort to wean the world off fossil fuels and move us toward using renewable energy sources so that we avert catastrophic global warming. You are fighting the same fight as those who are trying to stop mountaintop removal in West VA,  the Keystone XL pipeline, which would transport tar-sands oil (whose extraction and refining produces up to 30 percent more greenhouse gases than conventional oil) and dangerous nuclear power.  You have become a member of a worldwide effort to move from polluting carbon fossil fuels to renewable energy alternatives.
The world is running short of easy to access fossil fuels, but rather than take the diminishing supplies as a sign to change our paradigm to renewable energy, we have instead gone to more extreme methods (such as hydrofracturing) to remove it from the earth.
While these extreme methods temporarily give us the fossil fuels we crave, the extraction process comes with a big price tag to our environment and our health and does nothing to curb our carbon footprint or mitigate climate change.
At the “Planet Under Pressure” conference in London last month, scientists warned that the world is close to reaching tipping points that will make it irreversibly hotter, making this decade critical in efforts to contain global warming.
While the science of climate change is complex and not totally certain, it is certain that so far we have substantially underestimated the problem. The polar ice sheets are melting 100 years ahead of 2001 forecasts and you just have to look at the warmest winter we’ve ever had to see that there is a huge problem.
Unfortunately, the United States has been the chief obstacle to moving away from a fossil-fuel-based economy, in spite of the fact that we are the largest historical emitter.

But we need to move forward. 

First we must acknowledge the grievous mistake we made in the 1980s when we failed to create a long-term energy policy.  Then we need to move forward by encouraging our elected officials to take whatever political risks present themselves and stay on the course to develop clean energy solutions.
This is a problem that will affect us all, particularly our children and grandchildren.  That is why Catskill Mountainkeeper has launched a new Carbon Neutral Initiative.  Visit our website to learn more about global warming and important information about how you can move toward becoming carbon neutral.

To educate the public, Catskill Mountainkeeper and our partners Frack Free Catskills, Clearwater, NYPIRG, and Working Films/Reel Power are sponsoring the “Extreme Energy and the Fight for Our Future Conferenceon Monday 4/23/12 at 6:00 PM, SUNY New Paltz, Lecture Center 100.
Please attend and hear from people who are fighting fracking and nuclear power in New York, mountaintop removal in W VA, climate change and working for a sustainable future. See a screening of “DIRTY BUSINESS: ‘Clean Coal’ and the Battle for Our Energy Future” Learn what you can do!   VISIT THE WATERSHED POST TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE EVENT

Join us in writing to your legislators and Governor Cuomo demanding that this process be banned

We often ask you to write to our government officials, and some of you may feel that you have already expressed your objections to fracking, however, it is critical in this fight that we keep up the pressure and that our elected officials hear from us again, and again about why fracking is too great a risk to our health and the well-being of our communities to be done in New York State.

And please mention that you don’t want propane fracking in New York when you call Governor Cuomo as part of our “DON’T FRACK FRIDAYS” call campaign. His office can be reached at (518) 474-8390.

Fracking with Propane

Fracking with Propane

The Gas Companies’ Latest Tactic to Bring Fracking to New York State

 A group of landowners in Tioga County in the Southern Tier of New York State have reached an agreement with gas drillers’ eCorp and GasFrac Energy Services to open up 130,000 acres to gas drilling and to use liquid propane gas (LPG) as a fracking agent. The coalition’s strategy appears to be to bypass the current de facto moratorium on high-volume hydraulic fracturing through the use of this alternative fracking agent.

Our lawyers have advised us that New York law does not permit fracking with LPG because given its significant risk of adverse environmental impacts any application to use it would first require its own supplemental-generic or site-specific environmental impact statement. It is unfathomable that the state would consider allowing a process that forces explosive liquid propane gas underground under high pressure without first doing the proper environmental review.

What we do know is that this dangerous new technology resulted in two explosions/fires in 2011 – one left 3 workers hospitalized and one worker with second degree burns and the second, a flash fire, injured about a dozen workers, two of whom had to be evacuated to the hospital by helicopter. In a third incident, GasFrac Energy Services of Alberta Canada, the company who pioneered this technology, had to shut down the company for 2 weeks in January 2012 while they investigated a fire at a well site.
GasFrac has touted fracking with liquid propane as a major breakthrough because it eliminates the need for the millions of gallons of water that are needed to frack each well, however, it is not at all clear that fracking with liquid propane gas is any less threatening to the environment or to people’s health than water based fracking. There has been no independent empirical analysis or scientific studies done of the complete life cycle of the process and the only information about it comes from the company’s marketing materials, which claim, for instance, that it is a “green” alternative to water based approaches.

Also, the elimination of water does not eliminate the need to truck this highly explosive gas to the well sites, the need for chemicals in the fracking solution or the threat of air pollution. It doesn’t solve the problem of methane leaks and its highly combustible composition brings with it new levels of danger for both workers and residents. For more on the dangers of propane fracking, please see our website.

The bottom line is that fracking with liquid propane gas should not be allowed in New York State.

Help Keep the HIA in the Budget

Don’t Let the Governor Get Away with Taking the Fracking Health Impact Assessment Study Out of the State Budget

Last night New York State released a final draft of the section of the budget that should have included a Health Impact Assessment Study on fracking, but despite the study’s inclusion in the budget submitted by the Assembly, it was absent from the final version.

This flagrant omission prompts us to ask the question, “Does the Governor really care about our health?”

These actions are particularly egregious in light of the medical evidence that is coming out warning about the dangers of fracking.  Just last week researchers at the Colorado School of Public Health reported the results of a 3-year study that shows that air pollution caused by fracking may contribute to acute and chronic health problems for those living near natural gas drilling sites.

Researchers found a number of potentially toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in the air near gas wells including benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene. The report calculated higher cancer risks for residents living nearer to wells as compared to those residing further away. Benzene has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a known carcinogen.

Lisa McKenzie, Ph.D., MPH, the lead author of the study and a research associate at the Colorado School of Public Health said, “Our data shows that it is important to include air pollution in the national dialogue on natural gas development that has focused largely on water exposures to hydraulic fracturing.” She cited the need for additional studies to also examine the toxicity of other hydrocarbons associated with natural gas development.

Catskill Mountainkeeper and our coalition partners have organized a call-in day on Wednesday, March 28th to tell the Governor that he needs to do his job to protect our health and the health of our communities.

Please call, have the members of your family, your friends and colleagues call and tell Governor Cuomo to reinstate the Health Impact Assessment Study of Gas Drilling into the State budget and call for a statewide BAN on fracking.

On Wednesday, please call 866-584-6799.

Catskills Agriculture – Area Resources and Events!

Celebrate and Support our Area Agriculture by Attending These Exciting Upcoming Events!

Catskill Mountainkeeper is pleased to support the following agricultural programs and events that are being presented by our partner organizations.  They include workshops for farmers and landowners on evaluating land for agricultural use and increasing land access for farmers, informational sessions for producers on how to better market your products, training for garden educators, and a workshop series on how to get the most out of your organic garden.
Please come out to join us in supporting these fun, informative, and important efforts.

Land Access Workshop Series for Farmers and Landowners

Wednesday, March 21 from 6:00 PM – 8:00 PM
eCenter, 5-1/2 Main Street, Delhi
Thursday, March 22 from 6:00 PM – 8:00 PM

Duggan Community Center, 3460 State Route 55, White Lake

Landowners and farmers are invited to the Catskills FarmLink Introduction to Evaluating Land for Agricultural Use & the Basics of Land Leasing workshops being held in Delaware and Sullivan Counties on March 21 and 22. Catskills FarmLink is an online land access resource, connecting farmers looking for land with property owners interested in maintaining a viable working landscape.  The workshop addresses two commonly asked questions: 1.) How do I evaluate my land for agricultural use, and 2.) How do I develop a land lease?

A presentation by Dale Dewing, field crop educator and Watershed extension team leader with Cornell Cooperative Extension, will focus on how to evaluate land for agricultural use.  In a panel discussion of landowners and farmers on lease agreements and food and farm law expert, Jason Foscolo, will provide guidance and examples of personal experience with land leases.

Additional workshop details are available on the Catskills FarmLink website. The workshops are free to attendees and RSVP is requested, as space is limited.  To RSVP for the workshop or for a free legal consultation with Jason Foscolo LLC, email [email protected] or call Sonia Janiszewski at 914-720-1020.

Farm to Market Connection
Sunday, March 25
9:00 AM – 4:00 PM
CVI Building
Liberty, NY

Join Pure Catskills, Catskill Mountainkeeper, and other area organizations, businesses and individuals for a day of networking and education about the most current topics in direct marketing.  Gather with local food advocates from across the region including farmers, retailers, restaurateurs, specialty food producers, distributors, farmers’ market staff and economic development practitioners.  Buyers of all types will be present from local retailers to regional distributors.  Educational topics will suit the interest of vegetable, livestock and dairy producers. The Farm to Market Connection is the perfect way to get the growing season off to the right start!
For ticket purchases, click here.
For more information on this and other Pure Catskills’ events, please check out their website.

Take Root! Training for Garden Educators
Wednesday, May 9, 2012 10:00 AM – 3:00 PM
CCE Sullivan County
64 Ferndale-Loomis Rd. Liberty, NY
Fee: $50.00 includes lunch

Cornell Cooperative Extension Sullivan County’s Master Gardener’s Program is pleased to announce a new training for county educators and youth workers. Session 1- Plant a Seed, Inspire Interest. This is an introduction to garden based learning. All the information is research based. It connects gardens to all sectors of work and education. In this class, you will learn how to develop a garden program that promotes positive youth development, opportunities for leadership and community and volunteer participation, and review tips on effective teaching methods. An in depth overview of Cornell Garden-Based Learning (CGBL) will be reviewed. Groups new to garden- based learning or groups struggling to get participants involved in their efforts and program structure will particularly benefit from this session.

Session 2 -Tend the Garden and Session 3- Building Capacity/Train-the Trainer will be offered at a later date

For more information on these and other programs of Cornell Cooperative Extension, call 845-292-5220, or check out their website.

Workshop Series – The New Approach to Organic Gardening

Sundays, 1:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Domesticities & The Cutting Garden
4055 State Route 52, Youngsville, NY

March 18 (Design), April 15 (Propagation), May 2 (Soil), June 4 (Maintain and Enjoy!)
Work with nature to nurture your garden into becoming productive and beautiful by using organic methods and permaculture design techniques.  Four sessions take you step by step to start a permanent, low maintenance system of production for food, flowers, and trees based on the natural system of the forest.  This will be a hands-on course with emphasis on individual attention and will be taught by certified permaculture instructor, Maria Grimaldi, and assisted by Anne Hart.

To learn more about the series and to register, contact Anne Hart 845-482-3333, or Maria Grimaldi 845-482-4164.

This program is sponsored by NOFA-NY.  To learn more about NOFA-NY and it’s programs, check out the website.


Negative impacts on human health have accompanied gas drilling using hydrofracking wherever it has been done. Despite that, the permit conditions proposed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to “govern” fracking makes little mention of the health impacts of fracking.
That is why Catskill Mountainkeeper and our coalition partners are demanding that the legislature require that an independent comprehensive Health Impact Assessment (HIA) be done prior to any further discussions of shale gas.
In October 2011, 250 physicians and medical professionals wrote a letter to Governor Cuomo calling for a comprehensive public health impact assessment. This was sent because the concerns outlined in a previous letter sent to The department of health and the Governor were clearly ignored in the draft Supplemental generic environmental Impact statement (SGEIS) .
A health impact assessment, which is defined by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, “INCLUDES MANY TOOLS THAT HELP ENSURE THE VALIDITY OF THE FINDINGS AND HAVE MULTIPLE PLACES FOR PUBLIC INPUT TO THE DOCUMENT.”
This will tell New Yorkers what the “true” costs of gas drilling are.
Certainly the risk to the human and animal health in New York State justifies that such a health Impact assessment be done.
On Tuesday our allies in the Assembly worked to have this attached to the budget as a resolution.
Now the industry is pushing hard to have it removed.
The Cuomo administration keeps calling for science not emotion. This is the science. Call Assemblyman Sheldon Silver today!
Thank him and ask him to continue the fight to keep a Health Impact Assessment in the Budget. It is very important that he hears from you now.
New York State Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver Contact Information:

District Office

Albany Office

A Major Victory – Court Upholds Towns Right to Ban Fracking

As reported in the New York Times a New York State Judge has ruled that the upstate town of Dryden in Tompkins County can ban natural gas drilling within it’s boundaries.  Passed last year to clarify that Dryden’s zoning prohibits the exploration for and production or storage of natural gas and petroleum, the home rule effort landed the Town of Dryden and the Town of Dryden Planning Board in a law suit brought by Denver-based Anschutz Exploration Corporation, which owns leases on more than 22,000 acres in the town and has invested $5.1 million in drilling operations there.  Anschutz argued that the zoning amendments amounted to an attempt by the Town of Dryden to regulate the gas industry, but the Court found that New York state’s oil and gas law does not restrict municipalities from changing their own zoning laws to halt natural gas activities.

While Anschutz may pursue appeals and other legal maneuvers to try to reassert its claims, the ruling is a decisive victory for opponents of fracking and advocates of home rule approaches to prevent fracking and related activities by concerned communities.

“The town of Dryden has proven in court that citizens — and not multinational energy companies — control the future of their towns,” said Wes Gillingham of Catskill Mountainkeeper.

Under the leadership of Helen and David Slottje,  Earthjustice and Dryden Resources Awareness Coalition, environmental groups including Catskill Mountainkeeper came to the defense of Dryden and another NY town, Middlefield, when their newly enacted bans on gas drilling activities were challenged at the end of last year. Catskill Mountainkeeper and others have also been pursuing legislative efforts to strengthen the rights of communities to exclude gas drilling through zoning amendments, aquifer protection laws and other home rule activities. This week’s ruling validates New York’s existing home rule law and makes a strong statement endorsing the community efforts already underway across most of New York to enact laws to protect people, animals, farmlands, and existing ways of life from unwanted industrial activities such as gas drilling.

According to the New York Times: “Justice Phillip R. Rumsey of State Supreme Court said that state law does not preclude a municipality from using its power to regulate land use to ban oil and natural gas production. The ruling is the first in New York to affirm local powers in the controversy over drilling in the Marcellus Shale, a gas deposit under a large area of New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio.”

Action Alert: The Power of Activism

 The Power of Activism

The exceptional work we have done together, what lies ahead and what you can do

Prior to pursuing their hydraulic fracturing agenda in New York State, the gas industry virtually walked into 32 states and set-up shop with minimal if any opposition. And the results as we know have been devastating for public health, the environment and for the social fabric of communities. But when the gas industry “Goliath” got to New York, they found a small but strong band of “Davids” who stood up and told them “NOT SO FAST”.  Since then our numbers have grown exponentially and together we have waged an unprecedented 4-year campaign to expose the dangerous consequences of gas drilling using hydraulic fracturing. Most importantly we have won some major battles, slowed the process and raised the consciousness of a large part of the state’s citizenry.

Significant among our joint achievements was getting then Governor Paterson in 2009 to withdraw the immensely flawed first draft Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement (dSGEIS). These are the regulations under which hydraulic fracturing would have been governed.

In September 2011, when the much improved, but still inadequate revised dSGEIS was issued, together we were responsible for turning out in mass at the hearings and submitting over 60,000 comments to the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), which they are now in the process of reviewing. It is significant that prior to the fracking issue, no DEC document ever received more than 1,000 comments.  Yet even with this incredible outpouring of public concern the Cuomo administration continues to indicate it’s intention to fast track the release of the final SGEIS even as early as this spring.

Together we have halted, at least temporarily, the start of drilling in the Delaware River Basin.  In November, 2011, the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC), was poised to issue the first permits to drill for gas, which would have had a devastating impact throughout the Delaware River corridor from the headwaters in the Catskill wilderness to Philadelphia and Wilmington. Unprepared and facing tremendous levels of activism, the DRBC backed down and indefinitely suspended their process in large part because the states of New Jersey and Delaware came to realize they have nothing to gain – and everything to lose by allowing the Delaware Basin to become a gas field.   The industry, however, is putting on a full court press so along with our partners we will continue to stay vigilant.

These are just some of our most notable successes. The increased activism of New Yorkers to ban unsafe gas drilling is particularly remarkable, because it is being done in the face of the gas industry’s incredibly well-funded and skillful propaganda campaign and ‘fueled’ by those who have the most to personally gain from the commencement of fracking.

As was reported in last week’s New York Times article, “Millions Spent in Albany to Fight to Drill”, the gas industry is spending exorbitant sums of money to push for gas drilling. This holds in stark contrast with the dramatically underfunded efforts dedicated to exposing the scientific consequences of fracking.

Despite being dramatically outspent, out publicized and in an environment where the gas industry is aggressively seeking to squelch the truth about the science regarding the results of fracking (see  former Garfield, Colorado county staffer Judy Jordan’s comments on the attempts to bury reports of oil and gas wells contaminating groundwater), we continue to make very important progress. There can be no doubt why!  When people hear our argument, they begin to understand what is at stake.  They recognize the implications that fracking development would have on their health, communities and environments, and they become active – signing petitions, making calls, going to hearings and speaking out.  In short the more people know the truth, the more people become committed to preventing the destruction that drilling will undoubtedly bring.

Subsequently, one of the most important actions we can all take is to continue to educate New Yorkers about the danger of fracking, so that at each future step of this ‘war’ our voice will be louder and more powerful. Now that we understand what can be done, we need to increasingly mobilize. Otherwise we are 12 months or less from wells being drilled and fracked in our backyards.

This is where you come in – please commit to sending this email to as many of your friends, family, colleagues and neighbors as possible.   Introduce them to our website where they can find out the many reasons why fracking should be banned in New York State, keep up with the latest news concerning this fight and learn about opportunities to take part on the front lines.

Join our “DON’T FRACK FRIDAYS” call campaign every Friday to let Governor Cuomo know that we don’t want fracking to ruin our health and our environment.  His office can be reached at (518) 474-8390.

And as always, please donate to Catskill Mountainkeeper so that we can continue to fight on your behalf.

or send a check to: Catskill Mountainkeeper, Box 381 Youngsville, NY 12791

Copyright 2012 Catskill Mountainkeeper, P.O. Box 381, Youngsville, New York, 12791. Catskill Mountainkeeper is a non-profit 501(c)(3) grassroots advocacy organization dedicated to protecting and preserving the unique and irreplaceable Catskill Region of New York State.

Join Catskill Mountainkeeper in Albany on January 23, 2012

The public hearing period run by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to get input for their revisions to the Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Study (SGEIS) on fracking is almost complete. The next step in the battle to prevent unsafe and unhealthy fracking in New York is to impact the legislative agenda.  Overwhelming momentum was generated from the SGEIS hearings as so many of you came forward to testify with great emotion, logic, facts and conviction about the threats of fracking.  Crowds had to be turned away because the hearing rooms were packed. The result was increased positive media coverage, a re-commitment to action by those of us who are convinced of the dangers of fracking and an important opportunity to impact the undecided.  Read the full alert…